An Iconic Lynching in the North

Griot: Fran Kaplan, EdD

MARION, INDIANA. August 7, 1930. In the dark before dawn, County Sheriff Jacob Campbell and his officers arrested four black teenagers in their homes. By evening, two would be dead.

The Accused

James Cameron, 16, and Abram Smith, 19, were shoeshine boys. Thomas Shipp, 18, worked at Malleable, a foundry. Robert Sullivan’s occupation is unknown.

They were taken to the fortress-like jail in downtown Marion, the county seat1, population 25,000. There the sheriff and his men beat and interrogated each boy separately until they extracted confessions. Afterwards Tommy, Abe, and Jimmy were locked into separate cells to await trial. For some reason, Robert was released.

The Crime and the Victims

The sheriff charged the boys with raping a white teenager, Mary Ball, 19, and shooting a white man, Claude Deeter, 23, the night before.
It was the beginning of the Great Depression.2 Claude, eldest son of farming family, had been laid off earlier that day from his foundry job at Superior Body.3 Townspeople described Mary in very different ways: loose, a prostitute, Claude’s fiancée,  Abram’s girlfriend.

Claude had taken Mary to Lovers’ Lane4, a clearing by the river just outside of Marion. The boys crept up on them, pulled them from the car and held them up at gunpoint for money. Supposedly they raped Mary, then beat and shot Claude several times before driving off. A nearby farmer answered Mary’s cries for help and took Claude to the hospital.

Word Spreads Far and Wide

On that hot August day, while Claude fought for his life, the news of Mary’s rape spread like wildfire. People talked about it all over Marion. They called their relatives and friends in nearby towns and farms. Word even reached cities and towns one hundred miles away.

Marion’s police chief hung Claude’s bloody shirt out the window of the police station like a flag. Crowds of angry white people began to gather around the jail where the black teens were being held.

By early afternoon, Claude died. Word that a hanging was planned had reached across Indiana. Whites were pouring into town by interurban trains5, automobiles and farm wagons to witness the spectacle. The crowd was estimated at ten to fifteen thousand men, women and children.

Many black families hurried out to Weaver, an all-black town nearby. Others stayed in Marion and prepared for an attack on their neighborhoods by white rioters.

The Lynching

By evening the crowd was demanding that Sheriff Campbell turn the accused boys over to them. When he refused, strong young men brought sledge hammers from the nearby foundries. They broke the brick around the iron entrance door. The lynching party surged into the jail and passed through unlocked doors to the cell blocks.6

They brought Tommy out first. The crowd dragged him along the cobblestone street, beating his body with bricks, crowbars, high-heeled shoes, and boards. Someone brought a rope. They tied it around the barely conscious boy and pulled him back to the jail. There they hanged him from the window bars.

Abe was next. The mob beat and dragged him down the street to one of the large trees around the courthouse. When the lynchers started to pull him up, Abe tried to pull the noose from his neck. They lowered him down, stabbed him, and broke his arms. Then they pull him up again.

Watch the testimony of three eyewitnesses to the event:

The lynching party then brought Tommy’s lifeless body from the jail window and hung it next to Abe’s. Photographer Laurence Beitler was called in to take a formal portrait of the dead boys and crowd. This was a regular ritual in spectacle lynchings.

Finally, late at night, the crowd called for Cameron. Jimmy was badly beaten7 and dragged from the jail to the square. The lynching party stood him up between the two hanging corpses and placed a noose around his neck.

The Miracle

Suddenly a voice rang out, “Take this boy back. He had nothing to do with any raping or killing.” Miraculously, the crowd calmed down, and Jimmy stumbled back to jail. Later the crowd became occupied with trying to start fires under the two hanged boys. Sheriff Campbell’s men sneaked Jimmy out of town to another jail for safekeeping.

Serving Time

Jimmy Cameron spent a year in jail awaiting trial. At his trial, Mary Ball testified that she had not been raped after all. The all-white jury believed Cameron’s story. He said that he had run away from Lover’s Lane when he recognized Claude Deeter as his regular shoeshine customer. He was not there when Deeter was shot.

The judge sentenced Cameron to two to twenty-one years as an accessory before the fact.8 He served four years in the Indiana State Reformatory before being paroled.

What Happened to the Lynchers

Despite the photograph and what eyewitnesses told investigator Walter White shortly after the event, townspeople claimed not to recognize any of the lynchers. None were ever brought to justice.

What Happened to Cameron

Fifty-eight years later, in 1993, Indiana Governor Evan Bayh officially pardoned Cameron in a ceremony in Marion. Cameron was also given a key to the city.

During his life, Cameron became an entrepreneur, father of five, civil rights activist, and founder of this museum. He taught people to “forgive but not forget” and to be “better, not bitter.”

Find out more about Dr. Cameron’s life here.

Endnotes:

1. A county seat is the “capital” of a county, where the county government is located. County seats have a county courthouse and jail, usually in the center of town.

2The Great Depression began in 1929 and lasted for about ten years. People in the U.S. and around the world suffered from very high unemployment and wide-spread poverty.

3Marion was surrounded by farms. Many farmers earned extra money by working at the factories in town too, or by sending their older children to work there.

4A “Lovers’ Lane” is a private outdoor spot where young couples go to hang out together in cars to talk and make out.

5At that time, many trains ran between towns and cities. People from as far away as Gary (150 miles) and Indianapolis (80 miles) came by train to witness the planned lynching.

6No one knows why the iron-barred doors had been left unlocked.

7He lost a kidney in the beating and had terrible headaches for months afterwards from a concussion.

8An “accessory before the fact” is a person who helps set up a crime but is not there when it is committed.

Sources:

Dr. Kaplan, independent scholar, filmmaker, and social activist, is Coordinator of the America’s Black Holocaust Virtual Museum. She co-authored an award-winning screenplay, Fruit of the Tree, based on the life of James Cameron, and is currently working on a scholarly edition of his memoir, A Time of Terror.

Freedom’s Heroes During Jim Crow: Flossie Bailey and the Deeters

Griot: Fran Kaplan, EdD

This exhibit pays tribute to people who fought hatred and injustice in the Jim Crow period. Some of these heros are well-known; others are unsung, ordinary people. Every quarter we will focus on different freedom fighters of this era.

To inaugurate the exhibit, we present three unsung people who opposed the infamous lynching in Marion, Indiana in 1930 that murdered two black teenagers, Abram Smith and Thomas Shipp, and almost killed a third, James Cameron.

Many people have seen the iconic photo of that lynching in which members of the lynch mob and spectators happily celebrate their brutal deed. Unseen are the people-black and white-who publicly opposed and tried to prevent the lynching. Among the most courageous of these was Mrs. Katherine “Flossie” Bailey. And perhaps the most surprising and admirable response to the atrocity came from the parents of Claude Deeter, the young man whose murder was the justification for it.

Mrs. Katherine Bailey1

At the time of the lynching, “Flossie,” as she was known to her friends, was thirty-five years old, the wife of a doctor with a thriving practice, and mother of a son. She was also the president of the Marion branch of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), the leading civil rights organization in the country at the time.

Under her energetic, committed and expert leadership, the Marion NAACP had grown to almost 100 members by the night of the lynching. The leading black families in town were members; the handful of white members included the town’s mayor and one of its newspaper reporters.

Everyone in town-white and black alike-knew Mrs. Dr. Bailey. Many years after her death, people would still remember her as a “hotrod,” “a born leader,” and “very cultured.” Flossie was warmhearted and kind, a good-looking, stylish woman who always appeared poised. She was an impressive orator, as well as an excellent organizer who daily juggled a myriad of details, phone calls, telegrams, letters, and meetings.

Like many in town, Flossie began to hear about a plan to lynch the jailed suspects early in the afternoon of August 7th, shortly after Claude Deeter died. She began making phone calls and sending telegrams seeking to have the alleged murders moved for their safety to another lock-up away from Grant County. At very least she wanted additional law enforcement protection for the prisoners. She called the county sheriff, who told her not to worry, that he was not aware of any such plan. She called the mayor’s office, but he was away in Indianapolis for the day. She called the governor; he was on a fishing trip in Canada. When she begged his assistant, a Marion native, to send protection, he hung up on her. The lynching would proceed.

But Mrs. Bailey did not give up. Shortly after the lynching, she heard that a white mob was threatening to torch the black section of Marion. While many black residents fled town, Flossie spent the wee hours in her home exchanging telegrams with NAACP leaders, informing them of the situation so they, too, could act. The pressure she brought to bear finally resulted in the arrival of the Indiana National Guard-three days after the atrocity.

Still Flossie did not rest. She demanded that members of the lynch mob be identified and tried. She wrote to the head of the NAACP, Walter White, an expert in lynchings, insisting that he immediately come to Marion to investigate. She provided him with background information and advised the blue-eyed White to pose as a white man, so that he could more easily speak with witnesses of the event.

White found the sheriff to be grossly negligent in his duty and urged the governor and attorney general to prosecute, since the county prosecutor was reluctant to take action, because it might anger and provoke the mob to further violence. White helpfully included with his letter a list of persons that participated in the lynching, according to eyewitnesses he interviewed.

Largely due to Mrs. Bailey’s efforts, two of the lynchers were brought to trial. The all-white, all-male jury found them not guilty. All her life Flossie would feel a sense of failure, because no one was ever punished for the murders of Abe and Tommy. She was, however, instrumental in saving James Cameron from the electric chair, by working with the NAACP to bring two excellent black attorneys from Indianapolis to defend him in court. They were able to convince another white jury that Cameron was only an accessory to Deeter’s murder, resulting in a prison sentence of two to 21 years.

Her work angered segments of the region’s white community. She and her husband received threatening calls and letters. White men drove by her house at night making their cars backfire to sound like gunshots. Nevertheless, following the Marion lynching, Mrs. Bailey organized a grassroots push for an Indiana antilynching statute that would remove from office any sheriff from whose jail a prisoner was lynched; it became law in 1931. This law was instrumental in preventing a subsequent threatened lynching in Marion almost seven years to the day of the 1930 atrocity. Flossie and the NAACP also worked for a proposed federal anti-lynching law-but no such law was ever passed.2

Mrs. Bailey also fought other forms of discrimination, including hospitals that denied treatment to black patients and training to black medical students, and well as school segregation. She and her husband unsuccessfully sued a Marion movie house after they were denied admission due to their skin color.

In addition to coping with the Great Depression and race and gender discrimination, Flossie suffered from bad health. She had a serious heart condition for which she underwent surgery in 1934. Dr. Bailey had a stroke in 1940, closed his practice and died ten years later. In the end, the couple struggled financially and had to accept help from friends. Mrs. Bailey wrote to Walter White that she regretted not being able to do more. This courageous and committed woman passed away at the age of 57 and was buried in Marion.

The Deeters3

Grace and William Deeter farmed 320 acres outside the small town of Fairmont, near Marion. Like many families of their day, they had a phone but no electricity in the house and pumped their water with a windmill. On Saturdays they stopped work early to go to Fairmont or Marion to shop and visit friends; on Sundays the devoutly religious family attended church in Marion.

Claude was the eldest of eight children. He helped his parents farm their land and later also worked for other area farmers. At age 22 he got a Marion factory job. He was good worker, strong and well-liked. In two years he was able to buy a new Chevrolet, which he proudly drove around Grant County.

In August 1930, Claude lost his job to the Great Depression, and his car was to be repossessed. Perhaps seeking solace, on the night of August 6th he drove out to the Lover’s Lane along the river with 19 year-old Mary Ball. It was there that he was shot in the apparent armed robbery attempt that led to the lynching in Marion.

Adhering to their religious beliefs, the Deeters asked their son to forgive his attackers before he died, so that he would not meet his Lord with hatred in his heart. Though initially reluctant, Claude forgave them before he expired.

As he drew his last breath, someone hung Claude’s blood-stained shirt from the window of the police station, presumably to incite the fury of the town’s citizens. Grace Deeter, on the other hand, moved immediately for reconciliation. That day, while in the deepest of grief herself, she called upon the mothers of Abram Smith and Thomas Shipp to convey Claude’s forgiveness and that of her whole family.

According to the Deeters, Grace and her sister tried to get the Marion newspaper to publish Claude’s account of the attack, which refuted Mary Ball’s initial claim of rape, but the newspaper did not print his story. Nor did the paper report Will and Grace’s opposition to the lynching; that was left to a paper in another town. Plans for the lynching were already laid. The facts of the crime were now irrelevant, and the victim’s family would have no say in the swift execution of the illegal sentence.

Mary came to the Deeters during Claude’s wake and announced that she and Claude had planned to be married. The Deeter family was a close one, but their eldest son had never mentioned the relationship, much less marriage plans, to anyone. Nevertheless, the Deeters welcomed this unknown fiancée and gave in to her request to take Claude’s bloody tie as a keepsake.

Footnotes

  1. Sources: James Madison, A Lynching in the Heartland: Race and Memory in America (New York: Pelgrave Macmillan, 2001) and Barbara Stevenson, An African-American Oral History of Grant County (Mt. Pleasant, S.C.:Arcadia Publishing, 1999).
  2. In 2005 eighty Senators finally signed a resolution apologizing for not outlawing lynching.
  3. Sources: Madison (2001); Cynthia Carr, Our Town: A Heartland Lynching, a Haunted Town, and the Hidden History of White America (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2006); Hartford City News, Hartford City IN, August 8, 1930; author’s interview with Carl Deeter, Jr., nephew of Claude Deeter, October 2006.

Dr. Kaplan is Coordinator of the America’s Black Holocaust Virtual Museum. An independent scholar, Kaplan has produced more than forty written publications and videos in two languages and an awardwinning feature film in distribution. She has also co-authored an awardwinning screenplay, Fruit of the Tree, based on the life of James Cameron, and is currently working on a scholarly edition of his memoir, A Time of Terror.